Preventive Health Service

Background: Nearly 40% of the world's population is exposed daily to household air pollution. The relative impact of prenatal and postnatal household air pollution exposure on early childhood pneumonia, a leading cause of mortality, is unknown. Research Question: Are prenatal or postnatal household air pollution, or both, associated with pneumonia risk in the first year of life? Study Design and Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study enrolled 1,414 nonsmoking, pregnant women before 24 weeks’ gestation with prospective follow-up to the child's age of 1 year.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by suggesting that current methods of cholera control are insufficient at achieving zero transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti, and that large-scale cholera vaccination campaigns are needed alongside improvements in water and sanitation for long-term cholera elimination.
Few public health interventions can match the immense achievements of immunization in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction. However, progress in reaching global coverage goals and achieving universal immunization coverage have stalled; with key stakeholders concerned about the accuracy of reported coverage figures. Incomplete and incorrect data has made it challenging to obtain an accurate overview of immunization coverage, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). To date, only one literature review concerning immunization data quality exists.
Background: The WHO Director-General has issued a call for action to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem. To help inform global efforts, we modelled potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical screening scenarios in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) to examine the feasibility and timing of elimination at different thresholds, and to estimate the number of cervical cancer cases averted on the path to elimination.
In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence - ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence.
Elsevier, The Lancet, Volume 385, 18 April 2015
Health systems have a crucial role in a multisector response to violence against women. Some countries have guidelines or protocols articulating this role and health-care workers are trained in some settings, but generally system development and implementation have been slow to progress. Substantial system and behavioural barriers exist, especially in low-income and middle-income countries.