Procedures

Study objective: This scoping review was conducted to collate and summarize the published research literature addressing sexual and gender minority care in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Using PRISMA-ScR criteria, an electronic search was conducted of CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science for all studies that were published after 1995 involving sexual and gender minorities, throughout all life stages, presenting to an ED. We excluded non-US and Canadian studies and editorials.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that an integrated WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) intervention alone was not successful in preventing transmission of trachoma in rural Ethiopia. These findings conclude that, in areas with hyperendemic trachoma, WASH interventions need to be combined with mass distribution of antibiotics (azithromycin) in order to successfully eliminate trachoma.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Volume 65, December 2021
Drug repurposing aims to find new uses for already existing and approved drugs. We now provide a brief overview of recent developments in drug repurposing using machine learning alongside other computational approaches for comparison. We also highlight several applications for cancer using kinase inhibitors, Alzheimer's disease as well as COVID-19.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that a handwashing intervention involving disgust-inducing messages, combined with the provision of handwashing stations in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, successfully increased rates of handwashing with soap after toilet use. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining health-based messaging with non-health-based messaging when implementing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions.
Background: Nearly 40% of the world's population is exposed daily to household air pollution. The relative impact of prenatal and postnatal household air pollution exposure on early childhood pneumonia, a leading cause of mortality, is unknown. Research Question: Are prenatal or postnatal household air pollution, or both, associated with pneumonia risk in the first year of life? Study Design and Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study enrolled 1,414 nonsmoking, pregnant women before 24 weeks’ gestation with prospective follow-up to the child's age of 1 year.
Elsevier,

Trends in Molecular Medicine, Volume 27, September 2021

Race-based assumptions in biomedical journal articles.
Background: Criteria for low-dose CT scan lung cancer screening vary across guidelines. Knowledge of the eligible pool across demographic groups can enable policy and programmatic decision-making, particularly for disproportionately affected populations. Research Question: What are the eligibility rates for low-dose CT scan screening according to sex and race or ethnicity and how do these rates relate to corresponding lung cancer incidence rates?
This article supports SGDs 3 and 10 by identifying ethnicity-specific body-mass index cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk-equivalence to the cutoff in White populations. The findings suggest ethnicity-specific body-mass index cutoffs are needed to optimise prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.
Background: Community-based active case-finding interventions might identify and treat more people with tuberculosis disease than standard case detection. We aimed to assess whether active case-finding interventions can affect tuberculosis epidemiology in the wider community.
Objectives: In the face of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, people with dementia and their carers are contending with serious challenges to their health and wellbeing, due to risk of severe illness, limiting of social contact and disruption to usual activities. Many forms of support for people with dementia and their carers, including singing groups, have moved online using videoconferencing. Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of group singing, which include cognitive stimulation, meaningful activity and peer support.

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