Background The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. Methods We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon.
Background Sex workers are disproportionately affected by HIV compared with the general population. Most studies of HIV risk among sex workers have focused on individual-level risk factors, with few studies assessing potential structural determinants of HIV risk. In this Article, we examine whether criminal laws around sex work are associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers.
Although effective programmes are available and several countries have seen substantial declines in new HIV infections, progress in the reduction of adult HIV incidence has been slower than expected worldwide and many countries have not had large decreases in new infections in adults despite large reductions in paediatric infections. Reasons for slow progress include inadequate commitment, investment, focus, scale, and quality of implementation of prevention and treatment interventions.