Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture using CaO-based adsorbents has recently attracted intense attention from both academic and industrial sectors in the last decade due to the high theoretical capacity of CO2 capture, low cost, and potential use in large scale. However, the successful development of CaO-based adsorbents is limited by significant sintering of adsorbent particles over a number of cycles of CaO carbonation/calcination. In this work, a systematic understanding of fundamental aspects of the cyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO-based materials is reviewed.