Establishing sustainable training to strengthen human resources for health for children's nursing in Africa requires stakeholders to navigate complex pathways spanning multiple regulatory systems and sectors. Incomplete stakeholder insight threatens long-term sustainability of new training programmes.
Nudging is seen to complement or replace existing policy tools by altering people's choice architectures towards behaviors that align with government aims, but has fallen short in meeting those targets. Crucially, governments do not nudge citizens directly, but need private agents to nudge their consumers. Based on this notion, the paper takes on an institutional approach towards nudging. Rather than looking at the relationship between nudger and nudgee, the research analyses the regulatory and market structures that affect nudge implementation by private actors, captured by the ‘budge’ idea.
Figure showing the institutional structure in water resources management in Azerbaijan.
In this paper, the objective is to analyze the water management in Azerbaijan to ensure the country's water safety by improving the efficiency of water management and consumption.
Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Volume , 1 January 2019
The pollution of the marine environment by solid wastes, either directly introduced into the sea or discharged into the oceans from rivers or pipelines, is considered from the perspective of both their impacts and their regulation. The waste materials covered include dredged material, particulate wastes from sand/gravel extraction, and land reclamation, and industrial wastes including mining wastes, munitions, and plastics/litter.
The European Union (EU) has had laws on the disposal of waste for over 30 years and laws concerning the environmental performance of products for over 20. However, these laws have not formed a cohesive whole - and that is about to change. December 2015 saw the European Commission (the body responsible for proposing new EU legislation) published its Circular Economy Package, with the stated objective of "closing the loop" of product lifecycles. This paper provides an overview of this package and demonstrates why the development of standards underpins future legislation.