Reproduction

Background: Nutrient deficiencies limit human development and could be caused by the high cost of locally available foods needed to meet nutrient requirements. We aimed to identify the populations whose nutrient needs are most difficult to meet with existing global food systems.
Why is polyandry such a common mating behaviour when it exposes females to a range of significant fitness costs? Here, we investigated whether polyandry protects females against reduced male fertility caused by thermal stress from heatwave conditions. Sperm production and function are vulnerable to heat, and heatwave conditions are forecast to increase as our climate warms, so we examined these effects on female reproduction and mating behaviour in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, a promiscuous ectotherm model in which fertility is damaged by environmental warming.
Global warming has been affecting animal husbandry and farming production worldwide via changes in organisms and their habitats. In the tropics, these conditions are adverse for agriculture and animal production in some areas, due to high temperatures and relative humidity, affecting competitiveness related to economic activities. These environments have deteriorated livestock production, due to periods of drought, reduction in forage quality and heat stress, eliciting negative effects on reproduction, weight gain, and reduced meat and milk production.
Persons with disabilities form a significant proportion of the global population, majority of which are women. The United Nations Convention guarantees persons with disabilities equal rights to reproduction and healthcare access. Similarly, the Sustainable Development Goal 3 targets improvement of the health and well-being of individuals including persons with disabilities. However, women with disabilities have not been given close attention, particularly in developing countries.
Elsevier, General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 157, July 2008
All organisms respond to environmental cues that allow them to organize the timing and duration of life history stages that make up their life cycles. Superimposed on this predictable life cycle are unpredictable events that have the potential to be stressful. Environmental and social stresses have deleterious effects on life history stages such as migration, reproductive function and molt in vertebrates. Global climate change, human disturbance and endocrine disruption from pollutants are increasingly likely to pose additional stresses that could have a major impact on organisms.