A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer as ‘academic engagement’. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organisational and institutional antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research activities, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.
► A systematic review covering 20 years of research on academic scientists’ engagement with industry. ► Identifies individual, organisational and institutional factors that drive engagement and characterises outcomes. ► Finds that drivers and outcomes of engagement are partly different compared to commercialisation activities. ► Identifies future research needs.
- University–industry relations;
- Technology transfer;
- Academic entrepreneurship;
- Collaborative research;
- Academic consulting