Emerging renewable and sustainable energy technologies: State of the art

Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 71, 2017, Pages 12-28, ISSN 1364-0321
Akhtar Hussain, Syed Mouhammad Arif, Muhammad Aslam


In this paper, five most emerging renewable energy sources are analyzed. These emerging renewables are either special or advanced forms of the mainstream energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal, biofuels, biomass, and hydro) or brand new technologies. The five emerging renewable technologies discussed in this paper include marine energy, concentrated solar photovoltaics (CSP), enhanced geothermal energy (EGE), cellulosic ethanol, and artificial photosynthesis. Marine energy is divided into wave energy, tidal energy, tidal/ocean currents, salinity gradient, and ocean thermal energy conversion. CSP technologies are divided into parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, and solar towers. The process for developing EGE reservoirs is also explained in detail. Cellulosic ethanol energy extraction is explained for both cellulolysis and gasification. Artificial photosynthesis is explained by considering semiconductor particles, electrolyzers, artificial leaves, and dye-synthesized solar cells. Each emerging renewable source's explanation is followed by its market share, challenges, implications for increased adoption, future prospects, and drawbacks.