Innovating e-waste recycling: From waste multi-layer ceramic capacitors to NbPb codoped and ag-Pd-Sn-Ni loaded BaTiO3 nano-photocatalyst through one-step ball milling process

Elsevier, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 21, 2019, e00101, ISSN 2214-9937
Bo Niu, Zhenming Xu

Waste multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), containing BaTiO3, Ag, Pd, Ni and Sn etc., are valuable secondary resource. The existing recycling process has great challenges when considering environmentally friendly and efficient separation and recovery of resources. From a new perspective of resource recycling, we directly utilized the complex components of waste MLCCs as a NbPb codoped and Ag-Pd-Sn-Ni loaded BaTiO3 nano-photocatalyst through one-step ball milling process. The as-prepared photocatalyst exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. The simulated sunlight H2 evolution rate and RhB degradation rate of the recycled sample could reach 156.7 μmolg−1 h−1 and 0.06207 min−1, which were 3.08 and 4.5 times higher than those of commercial BaTiO3. The recycled sample exhibited excellent photostability and reusability. The superior photocatalytic performance was attributed to the NbPb codoping and Ag-Pd-Sn-Ni loading, which enhanced the visible light absorption and efficient charge separation. Moreover, DFT calculations were applied to explore the enhanced mechanism. Compared with the previous studies only focused on the resource recovery, our study demonstrates a simple and sustainable process to convert e-waste into high value-added and high-efficient photocatalyst, which is more significant for waste utilization and environmental protection.