Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment - Chapter 4: Prospective ecofuel feedstocks for sustainable production

Elsevier, Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment, 2019, Pages 89-117
K. Sandesh Suresh, P.V. Suresh, and Tanaji G. Kudre

This chapter provides an overview of the present status and future scope of ecofuel feedstocks. Due to the extensive use of depleting, polluting, nonrenewable fuels, the interest has been pushed toward the replacement of these exhaustible fuels with renewable ecofuels. Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Biohydrogen, etc., are some of the ecofuels which can replace the nonrenewable fuels. The main problem challenging the production of ecofuel is the cost of the feedstock, and sometimes the feedstock from crop origin competes with the price of the crop in the market and may result in food shortage due to the utilization of land for growing crop solely for ecofuel production. Sustainable conversion of the available feedstock to ecofuels is the challenging scenario at present. Vegetable oil, animal fats, algae, waste cooking oils, lignocellulosics, grease, etc. are some of the feedstocks that can be used for ecofuels production. Genetically engineered algae with higher oil yield for biodiesel production has been current focus.