Inorganic Pollutants in Water - Chapter 5: Assessment of the negative effects of various inorganic water pollutants on the biosphere—an overview

Elsevier, Inorganic Pollutants in Water, 2020, Pages 73-96
Priyanshu Verma and Jatinder Kumar Rata

Over the last few decades, water pollutants have gained huge attention due to their incessant negative outcomes on human as well as other living organisms. In general, water pollutants are classified into physical, chemical, and biological categories. However, this chapter is exclusively focused on the assessment of potential inorganic-water-pollutant species (which are an integral part of chemical-based water pollutants) and their toxic impacts on the environment. Inorganic pollutants are commonly found in the environment quite naturally, but sometimes their quantity used to be significantly high or imbalanced in the open environment (due to various anthropogenic activities). These inorganic pollutant species could be any compound of trace minerals, inorganic salts, trace elements, metals, and part of metal–organic frameworks. In the present chapter, we review various recognized and under-observation inorganic pollutant species with respect to their environmental and toxicological implications on the biosphere, including their detection and identification of the contamination routes. In addition, we have also highlighted various specific metals and/or their oxides-based implications on the aquatic flora and fauna, and human health.