An Introduction to Green Nanotechnology - Chapter 3: Biological Sources Used in Green Nanotechnology

Elsevier, Interface Science and Technology, Volume 28, 2019, Pages 81-111
Mahmoud Nasrollahzadeh, S. Mohammad Sajadi, Zahra Issaabadi and Mohaddeseh Sajjadi

The term “green nanotechnology” can be employed to explain the use of biological sources and biological activity and specificity for the development of modern technology at the nanoscale. Indeed, the parallel development of nanotechnology with green chemistry methods, and the potential synergies between the two fields, can facilitate sustainable methods leading to reduced environmental impacts, improved conservation, and the protection of resources and human health. Increased awareness of green chemistry and biological processes has led to the necessity to develop environmentally friendly techniques for the production of nontoxic and biocompatible nanoparticles. The main methods for nanoparticle production utilize chemical and physical approaches that are often costly and potentially harmful to the environment. This chapter is devoted to the possibility of metal nanoparticle synthesis using biological sources, such as plants and microorganisms. The low toxicity of green synthesized nanoparticles is a significant parameter that is highly studied using plants and microorganisms, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, yeasts, enzymes, etc., as bioreducing, stabilizing, and capping agents.