Elsevier, Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Volume 17, January 2022
Screening for Lung Cancer in Individuals Who Never Smoked: An International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Early Detection and Screening Committee Report
Screening with low-dose computed tomography of high-risk individuals with a smoking history reduces lung cancer mortality. Current screening guidelines and eligibility criteria can miss more than 50% of lung cancers, and in some geographic areas, such as East Asia, a large proportion of the missed lung cancers are in never-smokers. Although randomized trials revealed the benefits of screening for people who smoke, these trials generally excluded never-smokers. Thus, the feasibility and effectiveness of lung cancer screening of individuals who never smoked are uncertain.
Elsevier, Preventive Medicine, Volume 152, November 2021
Systematic review of risk and protective factors for suicidal and self-harm behaviors among children and adolescents involved with cyberbullying
Cyberbullying is associated with increased risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. However, no review to date has explored factors that exacerbate and mitigate this relationship. This systematic review concerns research on factors that influence the impact of cyberbullying on suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Four bibliographic databases were explored and references in included articles were searched. We identified 727 articles and retained 66 that met inclusion criteria.
Elsevier, The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 5, September 2021
Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises a heterogeneous group of cancers with unresolved aetiology, although risk factors include environmental exposures to toxic chemicals. Although the ubiquitous pollutant benzene is an established leukemogen, its potential to cause non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been widely debated. We aimed to examine the potential link between benzene exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans by evaluating a wide array of cohort and case-control studies using electronic systematic review.
Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Volume 9, July 2021
This article supports SGDs 3 and 10 by identifying ethnicity-specific body-mass index cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk-equivalence to the cutoff in White populations. The findings suggest ethnicity-specific body-mass index cutoffs are needed to optimise prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.
Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 7, June 2021
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens causing different lesions in a wide variety of mammals as intermediate hosts, including humans. It is estimated that one-third of the world population is infected with T. gondii; however, for a long time, there has been much interest in the examination of the possible role of this parasite in the development of mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). T.
Purpose: To investigate the monthly and seasonal variation in adult osteoporotic fragility fractures and the association with weather. Methods: 12-year observational study of a UK Fracture Liaison Service (outpatient secondary care setting). Database analyses of the records of adult outpatients aged 50 years and older with fragility fractures. Weather data were obtained from the UK's national Meteorological Office.
Elsevier, The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 8, June 2021
Associations between significant head injury and persisting disability and violent crime in women in prison in Scotland, UK: a cross-sectional study
Background: The prevalence of head injury is estimated to be as high as 55% in women in prison and might be a risk factor for violent offending, but evidence is equivocal. The extent of persisting disability is unknown, making decisions about service needs difficult. The UN recognises vulnerabilities in women in prison, but does not include head injury. This study aimed to investigate relationships among head injury, comorbidities, disability, and offending in women in prison.
Elsevier, Clinical Breast Cancer, Volume 21, June 2021
Health Care Disparities and Demand for Expanding Hereditary Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines in African Americans
Background: Genomic medicine has led to significant advancements in the prevention and treatment of cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend BRCA1/2 screening in high-risk individuals; however, the guidelines have not incorporated differences within ethnic cohorts beyond Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity. We analyzed the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in various ethnicities and identified high-risk personal characteristics and family history incorporating differences within ethnic cohorts beyond Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity.
Elsevier, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 9, April 2021
Background: The number of individuals with vision impairment worldwide is increasing because of an ageing population. We aimed to systematically identify studies describing the association between vision impairment and mortality, and to assess the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality. Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and Global Health database on Feb 1, 2020, for studies published in English between database inception and Feb 1, 2020.
Elsevier, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 68, February 2021
The burden imposed by pollution falls more on those living in low-income and middle-income countries, affecting children more than adults. Most air pollution results from incomplete combustion and contains a mixture of particulate matter and gases. Air pollution exposure has negative impacts on respiratory health. This article concentrates on air pollution in 2 settings, the child's home and the ambient environment. There is an inextricable 2-way link between air pollution and climate change, and the effects of climate change on childhood respiratory health also are discussed.