Sanitation

Figure showing WASH-GEM themes.
A right to clean water is one of the global SDGs and is especially important for women.
This article contributes to research on public policy and water sanitation.
The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The pandemic not only induced a public health crisis, but has led to severe economic, social, and educational crises. Across economies and societies, the distributional consequences of the pandemic have been uneven. Among groups living in vulnerable conditions, the pandemic substantially magnified the inequality gaps, with possible negative implications for these individuals' long-term physical, socioeconomic, and mental wellbeing.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that an integrated WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) intervention alone was not successful in preventing transmission of trachoma in rural Ethiopia. These findings conclude that, in areas with hyperendemic trachoma, WASH interventions need to be combined with mass distribution of antibiotics (azithromycin) in order to successfully eliminate trachoma.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that a handwashing intervention involving disgust-inducing messages, combined with the provision of handwashing stations in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, successfully increased rates of handwashing with soap after toilet use. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining health-based messaging with non-health-based messaging when implementing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions.
Elsevier,

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 9, March 2021

This Viewpoint supports SDGs 3, 6, and 7 by discussing some of the reasons why many of the innovations and technologies for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) and household air pollution developed in recent decades have not led to the expected improvements in health outcomes, and why many of these interventions have either been inconsistently adopted by low-income households, or not adopted at all.
Water and wastewater utilities, water and sanitation hygiene (WASH) practitioners, and regulating bodies, particularly in developing nations, rely heavily on indicator microorganisms, as opposed to pathogens, for much of their regulatory decisions. This commentary illustrates the importance of considering pathogens and not relying only on indicator organisms when making decisions regarding water and sanitation, especially with respect to meeting the current targets of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.
This study was conducted to assess the self-reported and observed food safety practices (FSP) of food handlers, who deliver food products that are prepared and cooked at home during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. 751 participated in the online survey who were selected using criterion sampling. A questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to gather data with Cronbach Alpha of 0.91. t-test, ANOVA, and Fleiss kappa were performed to treat data.
Conceptual measurement framework for impacts of gender inequality on the wellbeing of children and adolescents
Background: By adulthood, gender inequalities in health and wellbeing are apparent. Yet, the timing and nature of gender inequalities during childhood and adolescence are less clear. We describe the emergence of gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life. Methods: We focused on the 40 low-income and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. A measurement framework was developed around four key domains of wellbeing across the first two decades: health, education and transition to employment, protection, and a safe environment.

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