Sensitivity Analysis

Background: A considerable proportion of people who inject drugs are unstably housed. Although unstable housing is associated with HIV and HCV infection among people who inject drugs, its contribution to transmission is unknown. We estimated the global and national proportions of incident HIV and HCV infections among people who inject drugs attributed to housing instability from 2020 to 2029.
Background: Climate change and air pollution are two major societal problems. Their complex interplay calls for an advanced evaluation framework that can support decision making. Previous assessments have looked at the co-benefits of climate policies for air pollution, but few have optimised air pollution benefits. In our study, we lay out a modelling framework that internalises air pollution's economic impacts on human mortality, while considering climate constraints and aerosol feedback.
Purpose: To investigate the monthly and seasonal variation in adult osteoporotic fragility fractures and the association with weather. Methods: 12-year observational study of a UK Fracture Liaison Service (outpatient secondary care setting). Database analyses of the records of adult outpatients aged 50 years and older with fragility fractures. Weather data were obtained from the UK's national Meteorological Office.
Background: Ambient air pollution is a major environmental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cities are generally hotspots for air pollution and disease. However, the exact extent of the health effects of air pollution at the city level is still largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the proportion of annual preventable deaths due to air pollution in almost 1000 cities in Europe.
Background: Existing studies evaluating the association between maternal risk factors and specific infant outcomes such as birthweight, injury admissions, and mortality have mostly focused on single risk factors. We aimed to identify routinely recorded psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women most at risk of adverse infant outcomes to inform targeting of early intervention.
This study supports SDG 3 and 10 by reporting that Māori and Pacific people with type 2 diabetes have consistently poorer health outcomes than European patients, indicating the need for specific policies and interventions to better manage type 2 diabetes in these subpopulations.
Cities are wrestling with the practical challenges of transitioning urban water services to become water sensitive; capable of enhancing liveability, sustainability, resilience and productivity in the face of climate change, rapid urbanisation, degraded ecosystems and ageing infrastructure. Indicators can be valuable for guiding actions for improvement, but there is not yet an established index that measures the full suite of attributes that constitute water sensitive performance.
Sexual violence is a universal phenomenon without restriction to sex, age, ethnicity or social class that causes devastating effects in the physical and mental health spheres, in the short-term and long-term, such as pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and greater susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms, especially depression. Some cases of sexual assault and rape are based on the use of so-called drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), which cause victims’ loss of consciousness and inability to defend, making them vulnerable to violence.
This study supports SDG 3 and 10 by highlighting the increased prevalence of diabetes and gestational diabetes in Indigenous women compared with non-Indigenous women, across Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. These findings highlight the need for system-wide and structural interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes and gestational diabetes in Indigenous women before, during, and after pregnancy.
Background: The WHO elimination strategy for hepatitis C virus advocates scaling up screening and treatment to reduce global hepatitis C incidence by 80% by 2030, but little is known about how this reduction could be achieved and the costs of doing so. We aimed to evaluate the effects and cost of different strategies to scale up screening and treatment of hepatitis C in Pakistan and determine what is required to meet WHO elimination targets for incidence.