Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes.
Objectives: We determined the representation of women in sport sciences research leadership by assessing the proportion of women in (i) leading authorship positions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from January 2000 to September 2020 in sport sciences journals and (ii) editorial boards of these journals as of September 2020. Design: Review.
This Research paper supports SDGs 3 and 10 by assessing ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among hospital workers. The findings showed that Black people had more than double the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity compared with White people, independent of age, sex, socioeconomic factors, and hospital role.
Elsevier, Clinics in Chest Medicine, Volume 42, March 2021
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs in women more than men whereas survival in men is worse than in women. In recent years, much research has been carried out to understand these sex differences in PAH. This article discusses clinical and preclinical studies that have investigated the influences of sex, serotonin, obesity, estrogen, estrogen synthesis, and estrogen metabolism on bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II signaling, the pulmonary circulation and right ventricle in both heritable and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.
Women represent ⅔ of the cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current research has focused on differential risks to explain higher rates of AD in women. However, factors that reduce risk for AD, like cognitive/brain reserve, are less well explored. We asked: what is known about sex and gender differences in how reserve mitigates risk for AD?
Background: Alcohol use disorder is a highly prevalent disease with multiple medications available for treatment. The overall prevalence of patients receiving pharmacotherapy is believed to be low and the characteristics and comorbidities that affect receipt are not well-established. Methods: We created a dataset from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database of patients with an outpatient encounter for alcohol abuse or dependence in 2014.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a polygenic disorder. This view is clouded, however, by lingering uncertainty over how to treat the quasi “monogenic” role of apolipoprotein E (APOE). The APOE4 allele is not only the strongest genetic risk factor for AD, it also affects risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other neurodegenerative disorders. This review, based mostly on data from human studies, ranges across a variety of APOE-related pathologies, touching on evolutionary genetics and risk mitigation by ethnicity and sex.
Objective: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is harmful for health and well-being and may be associated with depression. However, little is known about the correlates of SB in people with depression. Thus, we investigated SB correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in six low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The analysis was restricted to those with DSM-IV Depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months.
Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.
Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.