South Africa

The NeuroDev study will deeply phenotype cognition, behavior, dysmorphias, and neuromedical traits on an expected cohort of 5,600 Africans (1,800 child cases, 1,800 child controls, and 1,900 parents) and will collect whole blood for exome sequencing and biobanking.
Objective: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is harmful for health and well-being and may be associated with depression. However, little is known about the correlates of SB in people with depression. Thus, we investigated SB correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in six low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The analysis was restricted to those with DSM-IV Depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months.
The group of basic problems that determine the existence of mankind involves the surplus of food for some and the malnutrition of others. There is an opinion that ensuring food security is an integrated task of agriculture and political will, combined with the logistics of product delivery. Despite joint efforts and various UN programs to combat hunger, only short-term local results have been achieved. Food security, especially in the global sense, has not yet been implemented, and there are reasons for this.
Food retailers and manufacturers are increasingly committing to address agricultural sustainability issues in their supply chains. In place of using established eco-certifications, many companies define their own supply chain sustainability standards. Scholars remain divided on whether we should expect such company-led programs to affect change. We use a major food retailer as a critical case to evaluate the effectiveness of a company-led supply chain standard in improving environmental farm management practices.
Ecological infrastructure (EI) refers to ecosystems that deliver services to society, functioning as a nature-based equivalent of, or complement to, built infrastructure. EI is critical for socio-economic development, supporting a suite of development imperatives at local, national and international scales. This paper presents the myriad of ways that EI supports sustainable development, using South Africa and the South African National Development Plan as a case study, linking to the Sustainable Development Goals on a global level.
‘Biosphere reserve’ is a United Nations (UN) designation stipulating that a region should attempt to follow the principles of sustainable development (SD). This paper adopts a stakeholder analysis framework to analyse the discourses of those tourism stakeholders who can actively affect SD in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve (WBR), South Africa. Adopting an inductive qualitative methodology generated multiple research themes which were subsequently analysed using critical discourse analysis (CDA) techniques.
Calibrated models can reasonably capture descriptions between input and output variables and can thus be used to estimate long term groundwater levels.
Fossil fuel subsidies are a key barrier for economic development and climate change mitigation. While the plunge in international fuel prices has increased the political will to introduce fossil fuel subsidy reforms, recently introduced reforms may risk backsliding when fuel prices rebound − particularly if they fail to address the underlying mechanisms that create demand for low fossil fuel prices. Extant literature has mostly focused on the consequences of fossil fuel subsidies, including their economic or environmental impact, and the social contract that make their reform difficult.
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally.
Rationale: Food insecurity has emerged as an important, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for depression. Few studies have brought longitudinal data to bear on investigating this association in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To estimate the association between food insufficiency and depression symptom severity, and to determine the extent to which any observed associations were modified by social support.