World Alzheimer's Day 2021: The Power of Knowledge

World Alzheimer's Day is an international campaign organised by Alzheimer's Disease International to raise awareness and highlight issues faced by people affected by dementia. It takes place every year on September 21st and is the focus of World Alzheimer's Month.

Dementia is one of the biggest challenges we face, with nearly 50 million people living with dementia worldwide. Yet 2 out of every 3 people globally believe there is little or no understanding of dementia in their countries.The impact of World Alzheimer's Month is growing, but the stigmatisation and misinformation that surrounds dementia remains a global problem. To tackle this challenge, we need to collaborate and share best practice with one another.

In support of this year’s theme – ‘Know dementia, know Alzheimer's’ - Elsevier presents a curated, open access collection of over 70 journal articles and book chapters focused on shining a light on the warning signs of dementia and the importance of a timely diagnosis.

Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 9, November 2018
Microglia are the predominant immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that exert key physiological roles required for maintaining CNS homeostasis, notably in response to chronic stress, as well as mediating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The repeated exposure to stress confers a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified.
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Stress experienced early in life (ES), in the form of childhood maltreatment, maternal neglect or trauma, enhances the risk for cognitive decline in later life. Several epidemiological studies have now shown that environmental and adult life style factors influence AD incidence or age-of-onset and early-life environmental conditions have attracted attention in this respect.
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Physical activity and stress are both environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Animal studies of physical activity in AD models have largely reported positive results, however benefits are not always observed in either cognitive or pathological outcomes and inconsistencies among findings remain. Studies using forced exercise may increase stress and mitigate some of the benefit of physical activity in AD models, while voluntary exercise regimens may not achieve optimal intensity to provide robust benefit.
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, Volume 2, 2017
To test the hypothesis that sleep can reverse cognitive impairment during Alzheimer's disease, we enhanced sleep in flies either co-expressing human amyloid precursor protein and Beta-secretase (APP:BACE), or in flies expressing human tau. The ubiquitous expression of APP:BACE or human tau disrupted sleep. The sleep deficits could be reversed and sleep could be enhanced when flies were administered the GABA-A agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP).
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, Volume 2, 2017
Sleep disorders are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a major cause of institutionalization. Like AD pathology, sleep abnormalities can appear years before cognitive decline and may be predictive of dementia. A bidirectional relationship between sleep and amyloid β (Aβ) has been well established with disturbed sleep and increased wakefulness leading to increased Aβ production and decreased Aβ clearance; whereas Aβ deposition is associated with increased wakefulness and sleep disturbances. Aβ fluctuates with the sleep-wake cycle and is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep.
Elsevier, Japan and the World Economy, Volume 21, December 2009
Following the introduction of the long-term care insurance scheme and deregulation of the market for at-home care services, Japan experienced a substantial increase in expenditure on care for the elderly. Using household-level survey data, we empirically examine whether the increase in care expenditure is associated with supplier density springing from the rise in the number of care providers following deregulation. We provide weak evidence that supplier density in the at-home care market is positively correlated with probability to use care or expenditure on care.
Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 7, June 2021
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens causing different lesions in a wide variety of mammals as intermediate hosts, including humans. It is estimated that one-third of the world population is infected with T. gondii; however, for a long time, there has been much interest in the examination of the possible role of this parasite in the development of mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). T.
Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 7, February 2021
Background: Hippocampus segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging is of key importance for the diagnosis, treatment decision and investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. Automatic segmentation is an active research field, with many recent models using deep learning. Most current state-of-the art hippocampus segmentation methods train their methods on healthy or Alzheimer's disease patients from public datasets. This raises the question whether these methods are capable of recognizing the hippocampus on a different domain, that of epilepsy patients with hippocampus resection.
Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 6, December 2020
Alzheimer poses lots of challenges in Low and Middle Income Countries, especially in Nigeria. Globally, the causes of Alzheimer are poorly understood. Cultural factors affect the preference of mental health treatment for treating people living with Alzheimer's disease (PLWA However, Alzheimer's and its gender differentials have been given little consideration in particular. Twenty-four in-depth study was conducted with caregivers and family members/relatives of people living with Alzheimer's (PLWA) residing in the study area.

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