Amahewu is a fermented maize-based gruel or beverage consumed mainly in Southern Africa. The nutritional and sensory properties of amahewu may vary with inoculum type, maize type and the prevailing fermentation conditions. Further, these properties may be enhanced through enrichment and fortification. This review seeks to provide up-to-date information on the science and technology of amahewu, focussing on the research findings of its physicochemical properties, as affected by the starter culture used, product formulation and processing conditions.
Elsevier, TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 114, May 2019
The presence of small plastic particles in the environment, reported for the first time in the 1970's, has only recently been recognized as a global issue. Although environmental awareness continues to grow, so does its consumption and associated risks. The number of studies reporting the presence of microplastics, has grown exponentially as did the concern over plastic degradation into smaller particles like nanoplastics, a potentially more pernicious form of plastic pollution.
Microplastics are emerging pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial environments. In the last years, several case studies and reviews have been published about microplastics in freshwater and marine environments. However, no standardized methods are available for sampling and sample preparation. Based on literature research, this review presents different techniques and methods for sampling as well as the preparation of microplastic samples from water, sediment and biota of freshwater and marine environments.
Elsevier, TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 111, February 2019
The quantification of micro- and nanoplastics in environmental matrices is an analytical challenge and pushes to the use of unrealistic high exposure concentrations in laboratory studies which can lead to manifestations of ecotoxicological effects and risks estimation that are transient under natural conditions.
Microplastics pollution in aquatic ecosystems has aroused increasing global concern, leading to an explosive growth of studies regarding microplastics published in the past few years. To date, there is still a lack of standardized methodologies used for the detection of microplastics within environmental samples, thus hampering comparison of the reported data.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 26-27, 1 June 2017
Accountability and adaptive management of recent global agreements such as the Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Agreement, will in part rely on the ability to track progress toward the social and environmental targets they set. Current metrics and monitoring systems, however, are not yet up to the task. We argue that there is an imperative to consider principles of coherence (what to measure), standardization (how to measure) and decision-relevance (why to measure) when designing monitoring schemes if they are to be practical and useful.