We explore ethical premises and practical implications of using genetic testing to predict suicide risk. Twin studies indicate heritable components of suicide risk, intertwined with the heritability of mental disorders, and possibly other traits. Current genetics research has abandoned searching for single gene Mendelian determinants, in favour of complex probabilistic epigenetic models. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) might identify thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each contributing very little to the variance associated with behavioral phenotypes.
Since 1999, the Office of the United States Surgeon General has identified suicide prevention as a national public health priority. The National Strategy on Suicide Prevention, coordinated by the public-private Action Alliance, was most recently updated in 2012. In early 2021, the Surgeon General's office released a Call to Action to fully implement the national strategy.
This review summarizes recent research in four environmental areas affecting risk of deaths by suicide. Politically, the weight of the evidence suggests that laws increasing social welfare expenditures and other policies assisting persons with low incomes (e.g., minimum wage) tend to lower suicide rates. Other legal changes such as those restricting firearms and alcohol availability can also prevent suicides. The social institutions of marriage, as well as parenting, continue to serve as protective factors against suicide, although the degree of protection is often gendered.
Cyberbullying is associated with increased risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. However, no review to date has explored factors that exacerbate and mitigate this relationship. This systematic review concerns research on factors that influence the impact of cyberbullying on suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Four bibliographic databases were explored and references in included articles were searched. We identified 727 articles and retained 66 that met inclusion criteria.
Background: Associations between high and low temperatures and increases in mortality and morbidity have been previously reported, yet no comprehensive assessment of disease burden has been done. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the global and regional burden due to non-optimal temperature exposure. Methods: In part 1 of this study, we linked deaths to daily temperature estimates from the ERA5 reanalysis dataset.
Elsevier, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volume 75, October 2020
Despite legislation, dowry is still widespread in many parts of India and adjacent countries. It refers to the transfer of goods, money, and property to a bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives from a bride's family as a condition of the marriage. One of the consequences of the dowry system has been the murder or abetted suicide of young wives, either because more dowry goods were not provided to her husband or his family, or to secure the goods after marriage. In 2015 7634 women died due to dowry harassment, representing approximately 21 cases per day in India.
Perinatal depression (PND) is a heterogeneous disorder with differences in timing of onset of depression, which influences symptomology, severity, and treatment efficacy. Researchers must embrace the heterogeneity to bring fruition to a precision medicine approach for women in reproductive mental health care. Galea and Frokjaer discuss the heterogeneity of perinatal depression based on timing onset, which influences symptoms and has implications for etiology and treatment efficacy. The clinical and research community can exploit this heterogeneity to uncover precision treatment strategies.
Background The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3) poses complex challenges for signatory countries that will require clear roadmaps to set priorities over the next 15 years. Building upon the work of the Commission on Investing in Health and published estimates of feasible global mortality SDG3 targets, we analysed Mexico's mortality to assess the feasibility of reducing premature (0–69 years) mortality and propose a path to meet SDG3.
A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people.
Social stigmatization hinders the ability of gay adolescents to achieve the tasks of adolescence. Because their sexual identity is denigrated by society, these youth have difficulty forming a positive identity and establishing healthy peer and intimate relationships. Family relations are often painful, and gay adolescents are susceptible to loneliness, isolation, depression, and suicide. Validation of these adolescents' affectional and erotic feelings helps to normalize their adolescence, as does providing' them with a peer group of other gay youth.