Climate change, a long-term shift in global weather patterns and average temperatures, is one of the most pressing challenges addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is directly targeted by SDG 13 (Climate Action), which calls for urgent measures to combat climate change and its impacts. However, climate change also cuts across virtually all other SDGs. For instance, it threatens to undermine progress towards SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) by disrupting agricultural production, and exacerbates problems of clean water availability, a concern of SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). It also impacts SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being) due to increased heatwaves and spread of vector-borne diseases. Furthermore, climate change can induce migration and conflicts, affecting SDG 16 (Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions). Hence, tackling climate change is integral to achieving the SDGs.
Global Environmental Change, Volume 26, May 2014
In 1997, the global value of ecosystem services was estimated to average $33. trillion/yr in 1995 $US ($46. trillion/yr in 2007 $US). In this paper, we provide an updated estimate based on updated unit ecosystem service values and land use change estimates between 1997 and 2011. We also address some of the critiques of the 1997 paper. Using the same methods as in the 1997 paper but with updated data, the estimate for the total global ecosystem services in 2011 is $125. trillion/yr (assuming updated unit values and changes to biome areas) and $145.
Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 59, May 2014
All crops require nitrogen (N) for the production of a photosynthetically active canopy, whose functionality will strongly influence yield. Cereal crops also require N for storage proteins in the grain, an important quality attribute. Optimal efficiency is achieved by the controlled remobilization of canopy-N to the developing grain during crop maturation. Whilst N will always be required for crop production, targeting efficient capture and use will optimise consumption of this valuable macronutrient.
Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013, Pages 691-699
Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013, Pages 681-707
Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013, Pages 399-410