Health and population

An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control. Implementing the proposed scheme for drinking water reservoirs enhances current water quality monitoring practices by solely utilising in situ monitoring data, in addition to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin measurements. Access to routinely measured cyanotoxin data allows for development of models that predict explicitly cyanotoxin concentrations that avoid to inadvertently model and predict non-toxic cyanobacterial strains.
New HIV diagnoses among people aged 50 years or older in the EU & EEA
SDG 3 target 3 is concerned with ending the AIDS epidemic. Between 2004 and 2015 there were 54 102 new cases of HIV infection in older adults (aged ≥50 years) reported in the 31 countries of the European Economic Area (EEA). In comparison with younger adults this age group were more likely to present late and to have acquired the infection via heterosexual contact. The notification rate of new infections increased in older adults over the time period studied, which highlights the need for increased education and targeted prevention strategies for this population.
To advance goals 3 and 8, this article explores the causality between mental illness and long-term sickness absence. In a randomized clinical trial, a 4-h training programme for managers reduced sickness absence among employees in the Australian fire and rescue service at 6 months after the intervention. The training was highly cost effective and should be tested in other populations.

Kidney International Supplements, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2017, Pages 71-87

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health concern and an important contributor to morbidity and mortality. In support of SDG 3, this review expands on the recently published International Society of Nephrology (ISN) CKD roadmap, which discusses the globally relevant major traditional and nontraditional CKD risk factors, highlights gaps in knowledge, and recommends strategies to close these gaps and enhance CKD prevention.
This study evaluated the outcomes of a community-based distribution program that provides migrant, refugee, and cross-border women from Burma with evidence-based information about and access to misoprostol for early pregnancy termination. The documented outcomes from this initiative may be valuable for those working to reduce harm from unsafe abortion in other legally restricted, low-resource, and/or conflict-affected settings and help to advance SDG 3.

The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Volume 2, No. 10, p707–715, October 2017

Infection with H pylori significantly increases an individual's chances of developing gastric cancer. SDG 3.4 aims to prevent non-communicable diseases such as cancer; this study provides policymakers with the evidence to decide optimal first-line H pylori eradication regimens according to local prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance and develop effective strategies to control the rising antibiotic resistance in their countries.
Addressing hunger and malnutrition (goal 2) is key to advancing goal 3. This review and meta-analysis provides national, regional, and global estimates of lactose malabsorption, which can guide identification of likely causes of gastrointestinal symptoms and their optimal management, and also guide policy—eg, when choosing food for provision during famine outbreaks.
Gender differences in child development have been extensively studied in high-income countries, but few data are available from low-income and middle-income countries. In this study of six countries across the Asia-Pacific region, researchers address this research gap, and find that girls aged 3–5 years outperform boys in developmental tests. The development of girls is anticipated to provide greater opportunities for economic development and will be key to achieving SDG 5.

Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 6, 2017, Pages 209-227

Urban transport is associated with a large burden of global disease and premature mortality. These impacts are preventable by changing current urban transport planning and policy. Cities now have access to an increasingly wide range of transport policy measures whose health impacts are unclear. Highlighting the synergies between SDG 3 and SDG 11, this paper provides an overview of 64 different transport policy measures indexed in KonSULT and an indication of their expected health impacts.
Afghanistan has prioritised the achievement of universal health coverage, drawing attention to underserved groups such as people living with disabilities. This study analyses the progress of improving health care coverage for people with disabilities, between 2005 and 2013, using the indicators availability of health care, as well as perceived coverage of health needs. As part of SDG 3.8, this study helps shape policy for improving the provision of health care for people with disabilities.