Health and population

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Africa, yet its epidemiology is not well described throughout African countries. This study reports the clinical characteristics and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in African countries. As a part of SDG 3, this study also describes the state of hepatocellular carcinoma management across African countries, which could inform health policymaking for reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases.
In 2014, the authors of this Comment published a call to action in The Lancet to eliminate violence against women, a goal that has since been included in global policy under the SDG 5 of increasing women’s empowerment and gender equality. Here, the same authors ask what progress has since been made, highlighting the WHO’s Global Plan of Action to strengthen health systems’ response to interpersonal violence. Increased political engagement will be necessary to sustain encouraging trends of decreasing violence and to achieve the SDG 5 target during an era when women’s rights remain at risk.
Worldwide, the majority of women who die from breast or cervical cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries. Although proven and cost-effective interventions are available, incidence and related mortality from these cancers in some low-resource settings are increasing. In this first paper of the Lancet Series on health, equity, and women’s cancers, authors outline the consequences of these global inequities in cancer survival for women. The Series seeks to provide an advocacy and action framework for radically improving progress toward closing this global cancer divide.
This Article extends the theory of so-called “neighbourhood effects” to explain the health of people living in slums; authors note that although densely populated neighbourhoods can promote the spread of disease, they can also amplify the benefits of interventions because beneficial effects are shared across many people. This neighbourhood effect is likely to offer increasing returns to investments to create a healthy environment and should be capitalised on to achieve SDG 3. The paper identifies how slums should be included in censuses to identify local priorities for action.
This article addresses the health needs of slum residents, who are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, infectious diseases, and injuries due to violence. Children are especially vulnerable, as malnutrition can lead to stunted growth and impaired cognitive development. Slum health is under-represented in the scientific literature, despite an estimated doubling of slum populations by 2030, from today’s figure of 1 billion. Addressing the health-care needs of people living in slums will be vital to achieving SDG 3 and is related to SDG 1.
The Blueprint for Business Leadership on the SDGs aims to inspire all business — regardless of size, sector or geography — to take leading action in support of the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It illustrates how the five leadership qualities of Ambition, Collaboration, Accountability, Consistency, and Intentional can be applied to a business' strategy, business model, products, supply chain, partnerships, and operations to raise the bar and create impact at scale. The Blueprint is a tool for any business that is ready to advance its principled approach to SDG action to become a leader. This chapter relates specifically to SDG 3.
The cost of the health SGDs
How much will it cost to reach the health-related SDGs in low-income and middle-income countries? This model-based projection analysis funded by the World Health Organization estimates that an extra $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets—the equivalent of $58 per person. If actually spent, 97 million lives could be saved and life expectancy increased by 3·1–8·4 years.
This paper examines the use of contraceptives and the social influence surrounding their use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research shows that women wish to control birth numbers but few use contraception, thus increasing population and adding pressure on scarce resources, as well as contributing to increased mortality and general ill-health. This paper addresses SDG 3 (Good health and well-being) as well as SDG 5 (Gender equality).
In this article a new mathematical model incorporating both vaccination and quarantine to study the dynamics of Ebola epidemic has been developed and comprehensively analyzed. The existence as well as uniqueness of the solution to the model is also verified and the basic reproduction number is calculated. Different rates of vaccination to predict the effect of vaccination on the infected individual over time and that of quarantine are discussed. The results show that quarantine and vaccination are very effective ways to control Ebola epidemic, supporting SDG 3.
In South Africa the population over the age of 60 is increasing and predicted to reach 5.5 million by 2025 and yet the knowledge and awareness of dementia is low. This study describes an innovative programme for caring for older people and people affected by dementia in one isolated rural community in South Africa, contributing to SDG 3 to ensure healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.

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