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Effective management of slow-onset impacts such as coastal erosion, desertification and sea level rise and their often-transformative impacts on communities and countries has remained relatively unexplored in terms of policy and finance responses. Drawing on relevant global experience, this paper investigates recent approaches to planned relocation as one possible response to climate change impacts and considers principles to inform the design of a fair and effective funding system.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
A growing scientific evidence reaffirms that slow onset climate events such as desertification, sea level rise and loss of biodiversity will place an increasing number of people at risk of poverty and social marginalization. Establishing national social protection systems aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement could be a key policy approach to address increasing risks from long-term changes to the climate system.
This paper reviews the evidence on slow-onset events presented in the Special Report on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL) and the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC), both published in 2019. It analyses how the reports, and recent literature cited in them, deal with the eight types of slow-onset events, specified by the UNFCCC: increasing temperatures, sea level rise, salinization, ocean acidification, glacial retreat, land degradation, desertification and loss of biodiversity.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
The association of melting Himalayan glaciers and planetary health is complex. Climate change has accelerated the melting of Himalayan glaciers, with profound impacts on the planetary health realms of the Himalayan region and that now threaten hundreds of millions of people. Using a complex adaptive systems framework based on a systematic literature review, this complexity has been captured and mapped in nine subsystem categories: ecological services, disaster, water security, food security, energy security, livelihood and culture, migration, conflict and public health.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
Climate change has affected diverse spheres and its impact is being witnessed worldwide. Soil, the basis of human sustenance, is both directly and indirectly affected by climate change. Soil erosion, vegetation degradation and soil salinisation are becoming prevalent, causing a threat to future food security. Saline soils are found mainly in North and Central Asia, Africa and South America. Various factors such as excess irrigation and poor drainage, groundwater salinity, sea level rise and intrusion, irregular rainfall contribute to the process of soil salinisation.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
Slow onset events by definition occur gradually and it might be expected that policy-makers as a result pay less attention to them than to immediate risks or ‘shock’ crises. If this is true and what can be done about it are important issues for climate change policy-making, given the gradual nature of many climate related issues.
This paper advances the literature on multiple knowledge systems, showing how Traditional and Local Knowledge (TLK) systems can collaborate with scientific knowledge to advance understanding of the slow-onset effects of climate change adaptation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Such an approach implies acknowledging the cultural heterogeneity of traditional (e.g. indigenous) knowledge and local knowledge, and how this can link to practical actions to adapt to climate and global change.
The multifaceted relationships that exist between communities and the environment in Fiji are increasingly threatened by the cross-temporal impacts of climate change. Recent literature on the relocation of vulnerable communities as a means to avoid slow-onset climate change impacts in Fiji highlights the complexity of these relationships and the range of considerations that must be factored in when assessing relocation options and strategies.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
This article synthesizes recent empirical literature on human mobility linked to slow-onset impacts of climate change. Through a review of the CLIMIG database from 2015 to 2020, it assesses the state of knowledge on human mobility related to slow onset events by distilling peer-reviewed articles across world regions, with particular attention given to developing country contexts.

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