Technological Barriers

Graphical abstract
In this review, the authors discuss the drivers, fundamental science, and potential enabling materials for high selectivity membranes, as well as their applications in different water treatment processes.
Nutrient recycling has been practiced for thousands of years in China to maintain food production without environmental pollution. In the past three decades, however, the traditional nutrient recycling systems have been replaced with waste treatment systems, which have resulted in rapid and severe environmental pollution.