Tumor Necrosis Factor

Graphical abstract of article
Environmental pollutants like fine particulate matter can cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress and inflammation. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) such as peroxynitrite can chemically modify proteins, but the effects of such modifications on the immune system and human health are not well understood. In the course of inflammatory processes, the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can sense damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders such as anxiety and depression. Recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that swimming exercise could be a potential therapy for cognitive and behavioral disorders. The prevalence of anxiety and depression is increasing among patients with AD; hence, further studies are needed to develop therapies for these behavioral abnormalities.
Background: The nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2), a chief transcriptional regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE), is considered a promising target for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vitamin D has been recognized to have a crucial role in improving AD cognitive functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of active vitamin D analogue, Maxacalcitol, on Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway in experimental Alzheimer's disease in rats.
Microglia are the predominant immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that exert key physiological roles required for maintaining CNS homeostasis, notably in response to chronic stress, as well as mediating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The repeated exposure to stress confers a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD).