Virus Transmission


Materials Today Advances, Volume 13, March 2022

In this review, the authors summarize the latest understanding on the detection, concentration, and evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.
Background: A considerable proportion of people who inject drugs are unstably housed. Although unstable housing is associated with HIV and HCV infection among people who inject drugs, its contribution to transmission is unknown. We estimated the global and national proportions of incident HIV and HCV infections among people who inject drugs attributed to housing instability from 2020 to 2029.
Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination plays a significant role in controlling HBV infection. Different immune mechanisms govern anti-HBs acquisition, titer, and maintenance. Host pre-vaccination immunological status could be targeted for vaccine efficacy.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a major global health burden with 260 million people being chronically infected and 890,000 dying annually from complications in the course of the infection. HBV is a small enveloped virus with a reverse-transcribed DNA genome that infects hepatocytes and can cause acute and chronic infections of the liver. HBV is endemic in humans and apes representing the prototype member of the viral family Hepadnaviridae and can be divided into 10 genotypes.
Background: The WHO elimination strategy for hepatitis C virus advocates scaling up screening and treatment to reduce global hepatitis C incidence by 80% by 2030, but little is known about how this reduction could be achieved and the costs of doing so. We aimed to evaluate the effects and cost of different strategies to scale up screening and treatment of hepatitis C in Pakistan and determine what is required to meet WHO elimination targets for incidence.
In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination.
New HIV diagnoses among people aged 50 years or older in the EU & EEA
Background The HIV burden is increasing in older adults in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). We investigated factors associated with HIV diagnosis in older adults in the 31 EU/EEA countries during a 12 year period. Methods In this analysis of surveillance data, we compared data from older people (aged ≥50 years) with those from younger people (aged 15–49 years). We extracted new HIV diagnoses reported to the European Surveillance System between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2015, and stratified them by age, sex, migration status, transmission route, and CD4 cell count.
Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.