Waste Incineration

Agricultural wastes are readily available in farming communities and can be utilised for off-grid electrification as an alternative to diesel generators. This work evaluates for the first time the life cycle environmental sustainability of these small-scale systems in the context of Southeast Asia. Rice and coconut residues are considered for direct combustion and gasification, and livestock manure for anaerobic digestion. Overall, anaerobic digestion is the best option for 14 out of 18 impacts estimated through life cycle assessment.
The use of biomass for energy production is one way to ensure energy security and address the environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need electric power and thermal energy for their activities. In Burkina Faso, this type of thermal energy is generally produced by SMEs from firewood. However, cashew companies produce a large amount of waste (shell, press cake, nut shell liquid) which can be converted into fuel. Separating the cashew nut from the shell requires two energy-intensive steps: roasting and drying.
Elsevier, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, Volume 7, September 2018
Rural communities in developing countries often require small cold storage for vital medicines while having no access to electricity. The utilization of waste heat – produced in biomass burning cookstoves during daily cooking routines – to power a thermoacoustic engine driving a thermoacoustic refrigerator is investigated. The simplicity and affordability is met by the use of atmospheric air as working medium, cheap PVC ducting for acoustic waveguides and locally available blacksmithing technologies for simple heat exchangers.
The internal combustion engine (ICE) does not efficiently convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. A majority of this energy is dissipated as heat in the exhaust and coolant. Rather than directly improving the efficiency of the engine, efforts are being made to improve the efficiency of the engine indirectly by using a waste heat recovery system. Two promising technologies that were found to be useful for this purpose were thermoelectric generators (TEGs) and heat pipes. Both TEGs and heat pipes are solid state, passive, silent, scalable and durable.