Water Demand

Graphical abstract
A hydro-economic assessment of the headwaters of the Nile River revealed the upstream-downstream linkages and interconnections among socio-economic development, climate change, and the environment.

Water Resources and Economics, Volume 33, January 2021

This study analyzes the effects of a local water market formation on the efficiency of groundwater use productivity. These results demonstrate the role of a market-based groundwater allocation approach under water scarcity conditions.
Urbanisation is increasing in many countries, leading to the establishment of 33 megacities, representing huge water demand which is increasingly difficult to supply, exemplified by the recently avoided Day Zero event in Cape Town (2018) and the ongoing water crisis in Chennai, India. The ongoing growth of megacities could lead to the potential for further Day Zero events in countries ill-equipped to deal with such a situation. This study analyses the water supply and demand situations in 12 megacities hosting 194 million people.
The increase in population coupled with rising per capita income and associated change in consumption habits will put unprecedented stress on food, energy and water (FEW) resources. Sustainable and reliable fresh water supply is central for life and also for all sectors that support our existence. Uncertainty on water security prompted interest in investigation of renewable energy driven desalination processes. One particularly promising option is to produce fresh water from the two most abundant resources on earth: solar energy and seawater.