Background: Climate change and air pollution are two major societal problems. Their complex interplay calls for an advanced evaluation framework that can support decision making. Previous assessments have looked at the co-benefits of climate policies for air pollution, but few have optimised air pollution benefits. In our study, we lay out a modelling framework that internalises air pollution's economic impacts on human mortality, while considering climate constraints and aerosol feedback.
Typical thermographic images of adult Malayan sun bears taken shortly after rest and in a postabsorptive state at (A) TA = 23 °C, (B) TA = 28 °C, and (C) TA = 29 °C.
Thermoregulation in Malayan sun bears is not fully understood. Therefore, in this study the effect of meteorological variables on both behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory mechanisms in sun bears was examined in order to identify temperature thresholds for the activation of various thermoregulatory mechanisms. Infrared thermography was used to non‒invasively determine body surface temperature (TS) distribution in relation to ambient temperature (TA) and to determine the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) of sun bears.
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums.
Remarkable gains have been made in global health in the past 25 years, but progress has not been uniform. Mortality and morbidity from common conditions needing surgery have grown in the world's poorest regions, both in real terms and relative to other health gains. At the same time, development of safe, essential, life-saving surgical and anaesthesia care in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) has stagnated or regressed.