Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and incidence is increasing. This population-based study from the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer. This study observed geographical, racial and ethnic, age, sex, and temporal variations in childhood cancer which require further monitoring and research. These data can be used to inform aetiological research, to inform public health policy and to advance SDG 3 target 4.
The prevalence of HIV among transgender women in Brazil is not known. A respondent-driven study in Rio de Janeiro assessed the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and described the characteristics predictive of newly diagnosed HIV in this population. These findings will improve and direct future sexual health-care service provision, as well as the attainment of SDG 3, in Brazil.
A disproportionately greater HIV burden exists in sex workers than in the general population. This article examines the relationship between the impact of sex-work legislation and HIV prevalence in sex workers in 27 European countries, using an ecological regression analysis. The studied role of legalising some aspects of sex work, through fair enforcement, will inform and help improve sexual health across countries as part of SDGs 3.3 & 5.6.
This article provides an up-to-date estimate of the prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection globally. Elimination of hepatitis C virus by 2030 is a key component of the WHO global health sector strategy, which aims to achieve the pledge to combat viral hepatitis set out in SDG 3.3. These reliable estimates of disease burden are essential for planning national strategies to achieve this goal.
Shakespeare’s allegory can be employed to articulate sustainable strategies in many of the SDG themes. For example, SDG 3 (Good health and well-being); SDG 7 (Affordable and clean energy); SDG 8 (Decent Work and economic growth); SDG 13 (Climate Action) and SDG 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions). This article examines how Shakespeare's works anticipate sustainability narratives for society at large and its individual actors.
Nanotechnology provides an emerging potent alternate mode of cancer therapy. The study emphasizes the synthesis of defect-rich hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets and h-MoO3 nanorods using a sustainable chemical route. This study also investigates their cytotoxicity towards lung and breast cancer cell lines. The authors noticed that defect-rich hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets and h-MoO3have better cytotoxicity toward breast (MCF-7) and lung (A549) cancer cells, respectively. These findings will further strengthen nanomaterials role for advancement in cancer therapy and contribute to SDG 3.

The Lancet, Volume 389, Issue 10070, 675–677

A study by Hong Chen and colleagues concludes that living close to heavy traffic is associated with a higher incidence of dementia. The research covered almost the entire adult population in Ontario, Canada with a lagged exposure of 10 years, statistically assessing the associations between traffic road proximity and incident dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. This study helps to advance SDG 3 and in particular advancing knowledge for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks, target 3.D.
Worldwide, the majority of women who die from breast or cervical cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries. Although proven and cost-effective interventions are available, incidence and related mortality from these cancers in some low-resource settings are increasing. In this first paper of the Lancet Series on health, equity, and women’s cancers, authors outline the consequences of these global inequities in cancer survival for women. The Series seeks to provide an advocacy and action framework for radically improving progress toward closing this global cancer divide.
This Article extends the theory of so-called “neighbourhood effects” to explain the health of people living in slums; authors note that although densely populated neighbourhoods can promote the spread of disease, they can also amplify the benefits of interventions because beneficial effects are shared across many people. This neighbourhood effect is likely to offer increasing returns to investments to create a healthy environment and should be capitalised on to achieve SDG 3. The paper identifies how slums should be included in censuses to identify local priorities for action.
This article addresses the health needs of slum residents, who are at an increased risk of developing mental health problems, non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, infectious diseases, and injuries due to violence. Children are especially vulnerable, as malnutrition can lead to stunted growth and impaired cognitive development. Slum health is under-represented in the scientific literature, despite an estimated doubling of slum populations by 2030, from today’s figure of 1 billion. Addressing the health-care needs of people living in slums will be vital to achieving SDG 3 and is related to SDG 1.