Health and population

Elsevier,

International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, Volume 6, 2017, Pages 8-13

This paper details a Research Summit, which was convened in Nairobi, Kenya and aimed to: identify regional gaps in knowledge and priorities for nursing and midwifery research and mentorship, recommend strategies that address these gaps, develop a mentorship plan with access to a pool of regional and global nurse and midwifery research experts, and disseminate recommended strategies with a mentorship approach to pave the way for sustainability and replication. It helps support both SDG 3 and SDG 4, recognising the importance of quality education to develop and enhance the careers of nurses and midwives.
Thirty years of public health research have demonstrated that improved indoor environmental quality is associated with better health outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated an impact of the indoor environment on cognitive function. In high-performing buildings additional benefits to health and productivity may be obtained through green certification. This relates to SDGs 3, 9 and 11.
This paper is about the importance educating midwives on malaria. Malaria complicates 80% of pregnancies in Uganda, therefore equipping midwives with the necessary information to deliver malaria-related in-service education to pregnant women could reduce infant and maternal mortality in Uganda. This relates to SDG 3 and in-particular the targets 3.1 concerned with maternal mortality and 3.3 concerned with ending the epidemic of malaria.
The cost of the health SGDs
How much will it cost to reach the health-related SDGs in low-income and middle-income countries? This model-based projection analysis funded by the World Health Organization estimates that an extra $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets—the equivalent of $58 per person. If actually spent, 97 million lives could be saved and life expectancy increased by 3·1–8·4 years.
This paper examines the use of contraceptives and the social influence surrounding their use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research shows that women wish to control birth numbers but few use contraception, thus increasing population and adding pressure on scarce resources, as well as contributing to increased mortality and general ill-health. This paper addresses SDG 3 (Good health and well-being) as well as SDG 5 (Gender equality).
In this article a new mathematical model incorporating both vaccination and quarantine to study the dynamics of Ebola epidemic has been developed and comprehensively analyzed. The existence as well as uniqueness of the solution to the model is also verified and the basic reproduction number is calculated. Different rates of vaccination to predict the effect of vaccination on the infected individual over time and that of quarantine are discussed. The results show that quarantine and vaccination are very effective ways to control Ebola epidemic, supporting SDG 3.
In South Africa the population over the age of 60 is increasing and predicted to reach 5.5 million by 2025 and yet the knowledge and awareness of dementia is low. This study describes an innovative programme for caring for older people and people affected by dementia in one isolated rural community in South Africa, contributing to SDG 3 to ensure healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.
The authors propose a new prediction model of infectious disease with new vaccination strategy based on network structures and dynamic replicator. They consider the subsidies of vaccine failure and the incentive strategy for medical treatment to promote that individuals take the initiative to vaccinate. Vaccination is key to the advancement of several of the targets of SDG 3.
Depression accounts for the largest burden of mental illness worldwide, with a global prevalence of 4·7% and an associated cost of US$1·15 trillion. Although psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions, most depressed people living in poor countries lack access to such treatments. This trial done in India is the first study to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment for depression in a lower middle-income country, showing acceptability, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness when delivered by lay health-workers and advancing knowledge on SDG 3.
Alcohol use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disability and premature mortality. Structured psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions for harmful drinking; however, poor access to primary care services limits their accessibility. This trial conducted in India provides proof of principle that strategies for behavioural change can be delivered effectively by non-specialist health workers in a primary-care setting. Such a strategy could help to close the large and rising global treatment gap for alcohol use disorders and directly contributes to SDG 3 target 5.

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