Health and population

One of the SDG 3 targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt by 2025 the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. This article provides the most complete estimates of trends in adult diabetes prevalence worldwide, and predicts how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target and how changes in prevalence, population growth, and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global diabetes target is lower than 1% for men and is 1% for women worldwide.
This article provides the most complete picture of trends in adult body-mass index (BMI), including, for the first time, in underweight and severe and morbid obesity. In addition, authors calculate the probability of meeting the WHO target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels. The results are damning, with authors concluding that if post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. This raises questions for the SDG 3 target related to reducing mortality rates attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease.
Nurses receive instruction in mobile nursing education in Kenya through Amref’s Jibu pilot. (Credit: Amref)
In order to achieve SDG target 3C, investments in the healthcare workforce is essential. New and innovative methods need to be deployed to train and develop the skills of healthcare workers. In Kenya, AMREF has launched a programme that enables nurses to learn on their mobile phones through a mobile nursing education app. Supported by a three-year grant from the Elsevier Foundation, Jibu (the name of the m-learning programme), offers a low-cost yet effective way for nurses to access up to date content.
New born baby being resuscitated
Every year, an estimated 1.8 million newborns die from breathing related problems. Precious time is lost when birth attendants interrupt critical ventilation to check a newborn’s heart rate by hand. Elsevier brought together five experts from diverse fields, who used their skills and creativity to brainstorm a solution. It's one example of a successful multidisciplinary approach, in this case to help the advancement of SDG 3.2, to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age.
Between 1990 and 2015, 29 of 33 provinces in China achieved a decrease in under-5 mortality rates twice as fast as the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. In this article, authors declare that the reduction of under-5 mortality in China at the country, provincial, and county level has been “an extraordinary success story”. China should now build on this achievement and look to study and replicate success in other developing countries to meet the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of lowering under-5 mortality to 25 per 1000 livebirths by 2030 throughout the country.
Millennium Development Goal 5 called for a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015. This article estimates the levels and trends in maternal mortality for 183 countries to assess the progress made on this goal, and also constructs projections to show what is needed to meet the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths globally by 2030. Although the SDG target is ambitious, countries that made a concerted effort to reduce maternal mortality between 2000 and 2010 should provide inspiration and guidance.
China has experienced a remarkable epidemiological and demographic transition during the past three decades. This article importantly advances SDG 3. It offers the first ever systematic analysis of provincial level burden of disease in China. It includes an assessment of and trends in all-cause mortality, causes of death, and years of life lost (YLL) in all 33 provinces between 1990 and 2013. Understanding subnational trends will be crucial in tackling the diverse health challenges faced by provincial governments and to ensure healthy lives and wellbeing for all Chinese at all ages.
Granite Powder (GP) and Iron Powder (IP) are industrial byproducts generated from the granite polishing and milling industry in powder form respectively. These byproducts are left largely unused and are hazardous materials to human health because they are airborne and can be easily inhaled. This study, as well as studies in other countries, have shown the viability of producing concrete with granite powder and iron powder byproducts. This supports the advancement of SDG 9 and SDG 11.
Elsevier,

Physics Reports, Volume 664, Pages 1-113, 9 December 2016

Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination–one of the most important preventive measures of modern times–is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. Recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behaviour and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. The success of SDG 3 relies to a large extent on vaccination programmes.
Elsevier,

Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 19, December 2015, Pages 200-206

The growth in the world's population has both created and increased the size of existing mega cities. The raised temperatures of these cities, known as urban heat islands, contribute to increased pollution and health-related problems. SDG 11 aims to target urban populations - making their lives healthier and cities more sustainable. The studies of mitigation strategies in this article reveal areas of weakness in modeling designs and prediction stages to advance knowledge on SDG 11 and SDG 3.

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