Health and population

Human health is better now than at any time in history, but these gains have come at a high price: the degradation of nature’s ecological systems on a scale never seen in human history. A growing body of evidence shows that the health of humanity is intrinsically linked to the health of the environment, but by its actions humanity now threatens to destabilise the Earth’s key life-support systems. As a Commission, we conclude that the continuing degradation of natural systems threatens to reverse the health gains seen over the last century. The SDGs provide a great opportunity to integrate health and sustainability through the judicious selection of relevant indicators relevant to human wellbeing, the enabling infrastructure for development, and the supporting natural systems, together with the need for strong governance.

Social Science & Medicine, March 2015, Pages 316 - 326

The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations and contribute to the advancement of SDG 10.2 by empowering and promoting the social, economic and political inclusion of all.
Provision of clean water is one of the most important global issues. However, clean water resources are decreasing every day because of contamination by various pollutants including organic chemicals. This article discusses techniques to remove pollutants from clean water resources and thus contributes to the advancement of 6.3, which target the reduction of pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials which substantially increases water recycling.
A third of the 2.5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1.5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. This study looked at the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention in India, providing insight into how to reach SDG 6.2 to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and ending open defecation whilst paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
Urban green spaces provide critical ecosystems whilst also promoting physical activity, psychological well-being, and general public health benefits to urban residents. Reviewing the efforts to green US and Chinese cities provides useful guidance to assist the advancement of SDG target 3, 11 and 15 in promoting good health for all and building sustainable communities while creating and maintaining urban ecosystems.
The potential impact of dietary changes on health, the agricultural system and other environmental factors has only been studied to a limited extent. This study examines the large-scale consequences in the European Union of replacing 25–50% of animal-derived foods with plant-based foods on a dietary energy basis, assuming corresponding changes in production. It provides valuable insights to SDG target 2.3 to ensure sustainable food production systems by 2030, as well as SDG target 13.1 strengthening resilience and adapt to climate-related hazards.
Vaccine “hesitancy” is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific – varying across time, place and vaccines. By eliminating vaccine hesitancy SDG 3 will be met as it seeks to ensure health and well-being for all, at every stage of life.
A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. This article directly links to the SDG targets 3.1 and 3.2 to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births, and end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age.

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Volume 103, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 137–149

Diabetes is a serious and increasing global health burden and estimates of prevalence are essential for appropriate allocation of resources and monitoring of trends. The SDG 3.4 target for 2030 is to reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being. This paper concludes that low and middle income countries will experience the greatest increase of diabetes over the next 22 years, highlighting inequalities in healthcare and nutritition.
The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparities. Combining multidisciplinary strategies to improve the planning, accessibility, and quality of imaging services in the developing world can contribute to advancing SDG 3 to minimise health care disparities and provide health and well-being for all.