Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide as initial treatment for HIV-1: five-year follow-up from two randomized trials

Elsevier, eClinicalMedicine, Volume 59, May 2023
Sax P.E., Arribas J.R., Orkin C., Lazzarin A., Pozniak A., DeJesus E. et al.

Background: Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF) is a single-tablet regimen recommended for HIV-1 treatment. The safety and efficacy of B/F/TAF as initial therapy was established in two Phase 3 studies: 1489 (vs dolutegravir [DTG]/abacavir/lamivudine) and 1490 (vs DTG + F/TAF). After 144 weeks of randomized follow-up, an open-label extension evaluated B/F/TAF to 240 weeks. Methods: Of 634 participants randomized to B/F/TAF, 519 completed the double-blinded treatment, and 506/634 (80%) chose the 96-week open-label B/F/TAF extension, which was completed by 444/506 (88%) participants. Efficacy was based on the secondary outcome of the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at Week 240 by missing = excluded and missing = failure methods. All 634 participants who were randomized to B/F/TAF and received at least one dose of B/F/TAF were included in efficacy and safety analyses. (Study 1489: NCT02607930; EudraCT 2015-004024-54. Study 1490: NCT02607956; EudraCT 2015-003988-10). Findings: Of those with available virologic data, 98.6% (95% CI [97.0%–99.5%], 426/432) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at Week 240 (missing = excluded); when missing virologic data were considered as failure, 67.2% (95% CI [63.4%–70.8%], 426/634) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Mean (SD) change in CD4+ count from baseline was +338 (236.2) cells/μL. No treatment-emergent resistance to B/F/TAF was detected. Adverse events led to drug discontinuation in 1.6% (n = 10/634) of participants (n = 5 with events considered drug-related). No discontinuations were due to renal adverse events. Median (IQR) total cholesterol increased 21 (1,42) mg/dL from baseline; the change in total cholesterol:HDL was 0.1 (−0.5,0.6). Median (IQR) weight change from baseline was +6.1 kg (2.0, 11.7) at Week 240. In Study 1489, hip and spine bone mineral density mean percent changes from baseline were ≤0.6%. Interpretation: Through 5 years of follow-up, B/F/TAF maintained high rates of virologic suppression with no treatment-emergent resistance and rare drug discontinuations due to adverse events. These results demonstrate the durability and safety of B/F/TAF in people with HIV. Funding: Gilead Sciences.