Effect of the relationship between anaemia and systemic inflammation on the risk of incident tuberculosis and death in people with advanced HIV: a sub-analysis of the REMEMBER trial

Distribution of TB occurrence according anaemia severity
Elsevier, eClinicalMedicine, Volume 60, June 2023
Araujo-Pereira M., Krishnan S., Salgame P., Manabe Y.C., Hosseinipour M.C., Bisson G. et al.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious morbidity that commonly occurs in people living with HIV (PWH) and increases the progression of HIV disease, as well as the risk of death. Simple markers of progression are much needed to identify those at highest risk for poor outcome. This study aimed to assess how baseline severity of anaemia and associated inflammatory profiles impact death and the incidence of TB in a cohort of PWH who received TB preventive therapy (TPT). Methods: This study is a secondary posthoc analysis of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5274 REMEMBER clinical trial (NCT0138008), an open-label randomised clinical trial of antiretroviral-naïve PWH with CD4 <50 cells/μL, performed from October 31, 2011 to June 9, 2014, from 18 outpatient research clinics in 10 low- and middle-income countries (Malawi, South Africa, Haiti, Kenya, Zambia, India, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Peru, and Uganda) who initiated antiretroviral therapy and either isoniazid TPT or 4-drug empiric TB therapy. Plasma concentrations of several soluble inflammatory biomarkers were measured prior to the commencement of antiretroviral and anti-TB therapies, and participants were followed up for at least 48 weeks. Incident TB or death during this period were primary outcomes. We performed multidimensional analyses, logistic regression analyses, survival curves, and Bayesian network analyses to delineate associations between anaemia, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes. Findings: Of all 269 participants, 76.2% (n = 205) were anaemic, and 31.2% (n = 84) had severe anaemia. PWH with moderate/severe anaemia exhibited a pronounced systemic pro-inflammatory profile compared to those with mild or without anaemia, hallmarked by a substantial increase in IL-6 plasma concentrations. Moderate/severe anaemia was also associated with incident TB incidence (aOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.32–9.76, p = 0.012) and death (aOR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.33, p = 0.039). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that PWH with moderate/severe anaemia display a distinct pro-inflammatory profile. The presence of moderate/severe anaemia pre-ART was independently associated with the development of TB and death. PWH with anaemia should be monitored closely to minimise the occurrence of unfavourable outcomes. Funding: National Institutes of Health.