Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, with characteristic extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, aggregated tau. Several key regulators of innate immune pathways are genetic risk factors for AD. While these genetic risk factors as well as in vivo data point to key roles for microglia, emerging evidence also points to a role of the adaptive immune response in disease pathogenesis. We review the roles of innate and adaptive immunity, their niches, their communication, and their contributions to AD development and progression. We also summarize the cellular compositions and physiological functions of immune cells in the parenchyma, together with those in the brain border structures that form a dynamic disease-related immune niche. We propose that both innate and adaptive immune responses in brain parenchyma and border structures could serve as important therapeutic targets for treating both the pre-symptomatic and the symptomatic stages of AD.
Immunity, Volume 55, 13 December 2022,