North America

Area of forest burned in Canada from 1986 to 2015. Orange colour shows burned area.
This is an article on the impact of residential exposure to wildfires and the incidence of various cancers, in the context of SDGs 3, 13, and 15, focusing on the need to develop exposure metrics to better estimate the chronic population health burden attributable to environmental pollutants emitted during wildfires.
The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need for individuals to have easy access to healthcare facilities for treatment as well as vaccinations. The surge in COVID-19 hospitalizations during 2020 also underscored the fact that accessibility to nearby hospitals for testing, treatment and vaccination sites is crucial for patients with fever or respiratory symptoms. Although necessary, quantifying healthcare access is challenging as it depends on a complex interaction between underlying socioeconomic and physical factors.
Background: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, minority racial/ethnic groups have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and hypoglycaemia. These groups may especially benefit from newer diabetes medication classes, but high cost may limit access. We examined the association of race/ethnicity with the initiation of newer diabetes medications (GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors).
Elsevier, Preventive Medicine, Volume 155, February 2022
Contested racial identity— self-identified race not matching socially-assigned race—may be an indication of experiences with racism. We aimed to understand the relationship between contested racial identity and women's health behaviors, health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used 2012–2015 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data on 5735 women linked with infants' birth certificates.
Study objective: This scoping review was conducted to collate and summarize the published research literature addressing sexual and gender minority care in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Using PRISMA-ScR criteria, an electronic search was conducted of CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science for all studies that were published after 1995 involving sexual and gender minorities, throughout all life stages, presenting to an ED. We excluded non-US and Canadian studies and editorials.
Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires decarbonizing electricity while ensuring resilience of supply, since a warming planet will lead to greater extremes in weather and, plausibly, in power outages. Although it is well known that long-duration outages severely impact economies, such outages are usually not well characterized or modeled in grid infrastructure planning tools. Here, we bring together data and modeling techniques and show how they can be used to characterize and model long-duration outages.
Elsevier, Women's Studies International Forum, Volume 90, 1 January 2022
Featuring original data, this article examines an elaborate network of gendered patterns in the faculty labor pool for the twenty-two English doctoral programs in Canada. Although the gendered distributions seem to approach numerical parity, the more nuanced the analyses, the less equitable these distributions appear. When juxtaposed with Statistics Canada data on English doctoral recipients, such patterns betray unsettling structural inequities for women scholars.
This research paper shows that a widely used tool might generate substantially divergent cardiovascular disease risk estimates for Black versus White individuals with identical risk profiles, which could introduce race-related variations in clinical recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.
Elsevier, Food Quality and Preference, Volume 94, December 2021
Studies on the drivers of household consumer engagement in various food waste reduction strategies have been limited. We thus address this gap by developing a research model that utilises two well-known theories, namely, the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB) and the Comprehensive Model of Environmental Psychology (CMEP), to explain food waste reduction behaviour in household consumers. The model hypothesises positive associations between emotional, social, and cognitive factors and food waste reduction behaviour, as conceptualised using the 3Rs (reuse, reduce, and recycle).
Research suggests that racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 in the US are largely driven by higher rates of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among Hispanic/Latino and Black populations. Occupational exposures play a large role in structuring risk of exposure, and essential workers are at elevated risk of COVID-19 infection. At a national-level, workers categorized as “essential” and “high-risk” are disproportionately Hispanic/Latino, but we lack analysis examining local-level racial/ethnic disparities in potential occupational exposures.

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