The current knowledge of modifiable risk factors for dementia comes mainly from high-income countries. In Latin America and Caribbean countries, where the burden of gender and socioeconomic inequalities is greater than in high-income countries, the prevalence of dementia is also higher and disease onset is earlier, especially among women, even after adjustments for life expectancy. In this Personal View, we discuss socioeconomic modifiable risk factors for dementia established by previous studies and postulate further harmful and often hidden factors faced by women that might influence the gender-specific timing of onset and general prevalence of dementia. We emphasise some of the effects of gender roles, their direct and indirect effects on dementia, and how they disproportionately impact women. Finally, we highlight the importance of bringing hidden risk factors to open discussion to promote research with high-quality data and to encourage public policies to promote and preserve women's health.
The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Volume 4, June 2023,