Elsevier, Mitochondrion, Volume 51, March 2020
This paper is written for non-specialists in mitochondrial biology to provide access to an important area of science that has broad implications for all people. The cell danger response (CDR) is a universal response to environmental threat or injury. Once triggered, healing cannot be completed until the choreographed stages of the CDR are returned to an updated state of readiness. Although the CDR is a cellular response, it has the power to change human thought and behavior, child development, physical fitness and resilience, fertility, and the susceptibility of entire populations to disease. Mitochondria regulate the CDR by monitoring and responding to the physical, chemical, and microbial conditions within and around the cell. In this way, mitochondria connect cellular health to environmental health. Over 7,000 chemicals are now made or imported to the US for industrial, agricultural, and personal care use in amounts ranging from 25,000 to over 1 million pounds each year, and plastic waste now exceeds 83 billion pounds/year. This chemical load creates a rising tide of manmade pollutants in the oceans, air, water, and food chain. Fewer than 5% of these chemicals have been tested for developmental toxicity. In the 1980s, 5–10% of children lived with a chronic illness. As of 2018, 40% of children, 50% of teens, 60% of adults under age 65, and 90% of adults over 65 live with a chronic illness. Several studies now report the presence of dozens to hundreds of manmade chemicals and pollutants in placenta, umbilical cord blood, and newborn blood spots. New methods in metabolomics and exposomics allow scientists to measure thousands of chemicals in blood, air, water, soil, and the food chain. Systematic measurements of environmental chemicals can now be correlated with annual and regional patterns of childhood illness. These data can be used to prepare a prioritized list of molecules for congressional action, ranked according to their impact on human health.
Adverse Event; Bioaccumulation; Cell Biology; Cell Danger Response Biology; Cell Survival; Cellular Stress Response; Chronic Disease; Cytology; Ecological Genetics; Environmental Exposure; Environmental Health; Environmental Impact; Environmental Pollutants; Health Care Cost; Human; Humans; Metabolism; Metabolomics; Mitochondria; Mitochondrion; Physical Chemistry; Pollutant; Priority Journal; Review; Safety; Stereotypy; Global