This chapter reviews important policies and market trends shaping the global development of clean energy technologies. Stimulus policies in the form of feed-in tariffs, tax relief, and renewable portfolio standards, along with substantial research and development, enabled clean energy projects to overcome early commercialization barriers. As a result, clean energy project costs are now competitive with or lower than conventional fossil fuels in most markets around the world. Policymakers and energy consumers are responding by increasing clean energy targets to high levels approaching 100% in a growing number of jurisdictions. Business models are adapting to this new environment, and energy market structures are evolving to enable successful operations of high renewable energy systems. Markets structures, policies, and technologies that enhance system flexibility for efficient renewable energy integration represent the most promising future area of research in this field.
Advances in Clean Energy Technologies, 2021, Pages 451-485,