The present evolution of the energy systems is characterized by an increase of small-size solutions, with which new aggregations of local integrated energy systems are emerging. The current policies on cleaner and efficient energy systems are providing opportunities to the development of systems supplied by renewable energy sources, and to the combined production from multiple energy carriers. Regulatory evolutions are enabling the existence and operation of local energy markets and energy communities. This chapter provides an overview of the relevant literature concerning the use of distributed energy resources in the context of local energy systems. The chapter is organized in three parts. In the first part, the aspects addressed include the deployment of local solutions to generate, store, and manage energy at small scale and micro-scale. The second part deals with grid-related aspects and solutions for optimal grid operation. The third part discusses various emergent aspects referring to local energy systems, markets and energy communities, which are gaining relevance in the present and future context of energy transition.
Distributed Energy Resources in Local Integrated Energy Systems, Optimal Operation and Planning, 2021, Pages 1-29,