Groundwater is an important source of fresh water for the world. In recent times groundwater has contributed a significant portion to the piped water supplies of many cities. Compared to rural areas, groundwater in urban areas is vulnerable to contamination from multiple sources and pathways. Potential sources of groundwater contamination are local geology, industries, agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides), sewage systems, heavy groundwater pumping, municipal waste landfills, electronic waste, underground storage tanks, polluted surface water and soil, road salts, effects of climate change, etc. Major contaminants in groundwater include arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, phosphates, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, etc.), pathogenic microorganisms, volatile organic compounds, and emerging organic contaminants. This chapter describes the various sources and selected contaminants that pollute urban groundwater. A case study of groundwater pollution in an urban area in India is also presented.
K. Brindha, Michael Schneider; GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science, 2019, Pages 179-196,