Coastal and inland waters are among the most productive natural systems on Earth. Rivers are the primary link between land and ocean systems and serve as the primary channel for delivering significant amounts of dissolved and particulate materials from terrestrial environments to the ocean. Freshwater ecosystems like lakes, streams, and reservoirs, which are comparatively small but spatially complex, are some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world because they are particularly vulnerable to land management changes and climate variability and also pose a major challenge to satellite remote sensing. The majority of the human population lives within 60 km of the coast, which poses a threat to the quality of coastal waters and estuaries. The maintenance of the quality of coastal and inland waters is essential for any country as they support the day-to-day activities of people and economic growth activities such as fishing, transport, agriculture, industry, and recreation. Industrial development and the increase in the human population have further affected inland ecosystems and water quality. The monitoring of water quality is, thus, essential in order to characterize waters and identify changes or trends in water quality over time or to be able to respond to emerging water quality problems such as the identification of sediment plumes, harmful algae blooms, and red tides.
Shard Chander, Ashwin Gujrati, Aswathy V. Krishna, Arvind Sahay, R.P. Singh; Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, 2020, Pages 197-219,