Alzheimer-like cell death after vanadium pentoxide inhalation

Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 7, Issue 8, 2021, e07856
Authors: 
Enrique Montiel-Flores, Oscar A. Mejía-García, Jose Luis Ordoñez-Librado, Ana Luisa Gutierrez-Valdez, Jesús Espinosa-Villanueva, Claudia Dorado-Martínez, Leonardo Reynoso-Erazo, Rocio Tron-Alvarez, Vianey Rodríguez-Lara, Maria Rosa Avila-Costa

Vanadium (V) toxicity depends on its oxidation state; it seems that vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is the most toxic to the living cells. It has been reported that oral administration induces changes in motor activity and learning; in rats, I.P. administration increases lipid peroxidation levels in the cerebellum and the concentration of free radicals in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Mice that inhaled V2O5 presented a reduced number of tubulin+ in Leydig and Sertoli cells; it has also been reported that inhaled V2O5 induces loss of dendritic spines, necrosis, and hippocampus neuropil alterations; considering the direct consequence of the interaction of V with cytoskeletal components, makes us believe that V2O5 exposure could cause neuronal death in the hippocampus similar to that seen in Alzheimer disease. This work aimed to determine pyramidal hippocampal CA1 cytoskeletal alterations with Bielschowsky stain in rats exposed to V2O5. Male Wistar rats inhaled 0.02 M of V2O5 one h two times a week for two and six months. We found that rats, which inhaled V2O5 reached 56,57% of dead neurons after six months of inhalation; we recognize strong argyrophilic and collapsed somas and typical flame-shaped in all V-exposed rats hippocampus CA1 compared to controls. We also observe somatodendritic distortions. Axons and dendrites displayed thick dark bands replaced by noticeable thickening and nodosities and the cytoskeleton fibrillary proteins' linear traces. Our findings suggest that V2O5 inhalation induces Alzheimer-like cell death with evident cytoskeletal alterations.