Trichlorfon is an organophosphate pesticide used extensively for controlling ectoparasites in aquaculture. Studies have found that trichlorfon caused environmental pollution and severe neurotoxic effects in several freshwater species. Feed additives such as flavonoids may reduce or prevent pesticide-induced toxicity in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute exposure to trichlorfon impairs behavior and causes oxidative damage in brains of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also sought to determine whether rutin would be capable of preventing or reducing these effects. Silver catfish were divided into four groups: groups A and C received basal feed, while groups B and D received feed containing 3 mg rutin/kg diet for 21 days. After 21 days, groups C and D were exposed for 48 h to a nominal concentration of 11 mg trichlorfon/L water. Fish exposed to trichlorfon showed significantly longer distances travelled and swimming performances than did unexposed fish. Cerebral levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in fish exposed to trichlorfon than in unexposed fish, while cerebral superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were significantly lower. Taken together, our findings suggest that dietary supplementation rutin completely prevented all alterations elicited by trichlorfon, except for cerebral AChE activity; the latter remained significantly lower compared to the unexposed group. In summary, rutin prevents trichlorfon-induced neurotoxicity in silver catfish.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 239, January 2021,