Water and sanitation

Water and sanitation are pivotal elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), primarily encapsulated in SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation). This goal seeks to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This objective directly addresses the current global water crisis, where nearly 2.2 billion people live without access to safe water, and about 4.2 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.

By focusing on improving water quality, increasing water-use efficiency, implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, and protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, SDG 6 addresses not only direct human needs but also the broader ecological health of the planet. Furthermore, efforts towards achieving SDG 6 indirectly promote several other SDGs.

For instance, water and sanitation are crucial to achieving SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being), as clean water and proper sanitation facilities reduce the spread of water-borne diseases and significantly lower child and maternal mortality rates. Likewise, they are foundational to SDG 4 (Quality Education), given that the provision of water and sanitation facilities in schools significantly impacts the attendance and performance of students, particularly for girls.

SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) also intersects with water and sanitation, as sustainable and efficient water management is critical for agriculture, which remains the largest global water consumer. The necessity of water for food production and the potential impact of improved water management on crop yields and livestock health makes SDG 6 integral to achieving zero hunger.

SDG 6 contributes to SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) as well. Access to clean water and sanitation can enhance economic productivity by reducing time spent gathering water, reducing healthcare costs due to water-related diseases, and even creating jobs in water and sanitation services sectors.

In terms of environmental impact, the sustainable management of water resources is essential for SDG 13 (Climate Action), as water is a key factor in managing climate change due to its role in agriculture and energy production.

With evident relevance to SDG 6, the research explores a water pollution control technology evaluation model based on the Pythagorean language neutrosophic set (PLNS) in the context of the pulp and paper industry. The authors' model aims to assist in the choice of appropriate water pollution control technology for those working within the paper industry. It is tested in an example based in China.
Elsevier,

International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 257, April 2024

The article emphasizes the importance of providing training and supporting resources alongside open science initiatives to enhance accessibility and reduce barriers in the field. It suggests that these educational resources should be customized to cater to diverse user profiles, including neuroscientists, computational scientists, and educators.
It is important to have scientifically analyzed data to support the policy direction for children's schools, as they are a vulnerable group when it comes to emerging infectious diseases. [hotspot – schools]
Image of water with World Water Day Special Collection title

Every year, World Water Day raises awareness and inspires action to tackle the water and sanitation crisis.  To mark World Water Day 2024, Elsevier has curated a free special collection of journal articles and book chapters.  This year’s theme for World Water Day is Water for Peace.  Discover research relating to clean water and sanitation from across a broad range of disciplines including the effects of racism, social exclusion, and discrimination on achieving universal safe water and sanitation in high-income countries.

 

Flyer image for the event

Water is essential for life and producing food, energy, minerals, and industrial goods. As planetary populations grow and a changing climate triggers floods, droughts, and other environmental extremes, access to clean water sources becomes increasingly competitive. Inadequate infrastructures, poor resource allocation, and outdated ecological restoration principles compound an already prescient problem. 

In this study, we introduced an integrated assessment framework, and estimated both quality and quantity-related Water Scarcity Index (WSI), local economic water scarcity risk (WSR), and the cascading virtual WSR observed in global trade markets across 40 major economies spanning from 1995 to 2010. Results show that developing countries had rapid growth in both quantity and quality-related WSI, while major developed economies experienced a modest increase in water stress but mitigated quality-related risks, suggesting imbalanced progress towards SDG 6 across countries. 
Elsevier,

Julian K. Trick, Marianne Stuart, Shaun Reeder,
Chapter 3 - Contaminated groundwater sampling and quality control of water analyses,
Editor(s): Benedetto De Vivo, Harvey E. Belkin, Annamaria Lima,
Environmental Geochemistry (Third Edition), Elsevier, 2024, Pages 35-62, ISBN 9780443138010

This chapter aligns with Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation by reviewing the tools available for the collection of groundwater samples, methods of on-site water-quality analysis, and the appropriate preservation and handling of samples. This work contributes to the anaylis of groundwater in efforts to monitor and improve water for populations.
The concept of a seawater hub signifies a substantial stride toward sustainable and environmentally conscious seawater desalination solutions. It holds the potential to transform seawater treatment and ensure a consistent freshwater supply for communities globally.
Elsevier,

Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, Volume 226, 28 February 2024

This paper seeks to contribute to pipeline leakage detection research through collecting and simulating leakage signals under different pressure strengths by combining experiments with numerical simulation. The findings point towards better detection in a real noise environment. Such research is vital in the context of increasing worldwide demand for water and insufficient water supply caused by pipeline leakage.
This chapter aligns with SDGs 3 and 6 by examining the relative capacity and capability of developing nations to adapt to hydrological variability arising from climate change and to study the challenges faced by developing economies to mitigate the impact of climate change on water resources.

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