Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: Current state and future use in a transformed global healthcare landscape

Elsevier, Neuron, Volume , 2023
Hampel H., Hu Y., Cummings J., Mattke S., Iwatsubo T., Nakamura A. et al.

Timely detection of the pathophysiological changes and cognitive impairment caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly pressing because of the advent of biomarker-guided targeted therapies that may be most effective when provided early in the disease. Currently, diagnosis and management of early AD are largely guided by clinical symptoms. FDA-approved neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers can aid detection and diagnosis, but the clinical implementation of these testing modalities is limited because of availability, cost, and perceived invasiveness. Blood-based biomarkers (BBBMs) may enable earlier and faster diagnoses as well as aid in risk assessment, early detection, prognosis, and management. Herein, we review data on BBBMs that are closest to clinical implementation, particularly those based on measures of amyloid-β peptides and phosphorylated tau species. We discuss key parameters and considerations for the development and potential deployment of these BBBMs under different contexts of use and highlight challenges at the methodological, clinical, and regulatory levels.