CD4 T Cells Induce A Subset of MHCII-Expressing Microglia that Attenuates Alzheimer Pathology

Elsevier, iScience, Volume 16, 28 June 2019
Mittal K., Eremenko E., Berner O., Elyahu Y., Strominger I., Apelblat D. et al.
Microglia play a key role in innate immunity in Alzheimer disease (AD), but their role as antigen-presenting cells is as yet unclear. Here we found that amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-specific T helper 1 (Aβ-Th1 cells) T cells polarized to secrete interferon-γ and intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected to the 5XFAD mouse model of AD induced the differentiation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)+ microglia with distinct morphology and enhanced plaque clearance capacity than MHCII− microglia. Notably, 5XFAD mice lacking MHCII exhibited an enhanced amyloid pathology in the brain along with exacerbated innate inflammation and reduced phagocytic capacity. Using a bone marrow chimera mouse model, we showed that infiltrating macrophages did not differentiate to MHCII+ cells following ICV injection of Aβ-Th1 cells and did not support T cell-mediated amyloid clearance. Overall, we demonstrate that CD4 T cells induce a P2ry12+ MHCII+ subset of microglia, which play a key role in T cell-mediated effector functions that abrogate AD-like pathology. Biological Sciences; Neuroscience; Immunology; Cell Biology