Effects of lifestyle interventions on weight amongst Pasifika communities: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Elsevier, The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific, Volume 25, August 2022
Palu E., MacMillan D.F., McBride D.K.A., Thomson D.R., Zarora R., Simmons D.

Background: Pasifika populations experience high incidence and prevalence of obesity and T2DM. However, no international review of lifestyle intervention studies amongst Pasifika communities exists. This study seeks to identify the effect and translatability of lifestyle strategies on weight amongst Pasifika populations. Methods: Lifestyle studies involving ≥90% adult Pasifika participants measuring weight change were eligible for inclusion. Database searching was carried out up to December 2021. Databases searched were MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) and ProQuest Central. Risk of bias was assessed using RoB2 (RCTs) and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) quality assessment tool. Meta-analysis and meta-regression used a bivariate random-effects model. Strategies were coded against pre-identified components of the newly proposed Cultural and Sustainability Assessment of Intervention (CSAI) framework. Findings: Twenty-three studies (n = 4258 participants) met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two lifestyle strategies targeting weight loss (WL) and 7 targeting weight maintenance (WM) were extracted. Meta-analysis estimates small but significant effect of -0.26 standard deviations (95% CI -0.51 to -0.02), with RCTs demonstrating a non-significant effect of -0.23 standard deviations (95% CI -0.49 to 0.035). Culturally relevant strategies included community and peer support facilitators and team-based activities. The CSAI identified 14 out of 23 studies with low cultural competency and sustainability scores (<60%). Interpretation: Qualitative and quantitative analysis show tailored lifestyle interventions has had an estimated small but beneficial effect on WL amongst Pasifika communities. Potential for tailored interventions design to incorporate psychosocial and behavioural considerations. The CSAI has the potential for systematically identifying cultural and sustainability components of efficacy in interventions. Funding: This review was funded under Western Sydney University's Postgraduate Research Scholarship.